Here in this article, We have covered the following points:
- What is ARAI and Its Importance for Electric vehicles in India?
- ARAI functions for Electric Vehicles:
- ARAI Standards for Electric Vehicles & EV Chargers
- EV Standards and Regulations in India?
- Why are Standards/Regulations Required for EVs?
- Category and Type of Approval Required For EVs in India?
- Government Regulation Framework for Electric Vehicles
India has the fourth-largest automobile industry in the world. The industry is expanding with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.01%. Worldwide, the transportation sector is responsible for 24% of all CO2 emissions from fuel combustion; three-quarters are from road transport.
India relies on imports for approximately 81.7% of its crude oil requirements and ranks third in terms of energy consumption after the USA and China (Energy Policy in India). Based on this prediction, India’s reliance on oil imports will continue to rise, which will result in a surge in the price of oil and natural gas.
EV penetration levels, EV policies, charging infrastructure, battery costs and electrification, EV efficiency, and government initiatives have been identified as the indicators of growth and development of the EV market in India.
The Government of India has collaborated with several agencies to provide flexibility to industries including EVs working toward an innovative ecosystem.
The Department of Science and Technology (DST) cooperated with the Department of Heavy Industry (DHI) to create the Technology Platform for Electric Mobility (TPEM). The DHI will govern the economic aspects of the program while the DST will preside over the execution arm.
So now, what are ARAI and its importance, and what are the government standards and regulations for electric vehicles in India
Table of Contents
What is ARAI and Its Importance for EVs in India?
Automotive Research Association of India, also known as ARAI was established in 1966. It is the leading automotive Research and Development organization of India set up by the Automotive Industry with the Government of India.
ARAI is an autonomous body affiliated with the Ministry of Heavy Industries, Government of India. It has been playing a crucial role in assuring safe, less polluting, more efficient, and reliable vehicles and has been recognized as a Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation by many government departments.
Furthermore, ARAI is one of the prime Testing and Certification agencies notified by the Government of India under Rule 126 of Central Motor Vehicle Rules, 1989.
Its vision is to become a world-class Mobility Engineering, Research, and Innovation Institution and a leading Global Automotive Certification, Testing, and Evaluation Organization.
Its mission is to Create and Facilitate safe, sustainable, and SMART Mobility Solutions. ARAI pledges support to all stakeholders with its motto – ‘Progress through Research’.
The automotive sector has always been of paramount importance for the country’s growth and ARAI has been playing a dynamic role in the progress of the Indian automotive sector, working in harmony and confidence with its stakeholders, for example, The Government, Industry for the development of Automotive Industry, etc.
They are developing indigenous chargers for electric vehicles to give a push to the electric vehicle ecosystem in India. To promote electric vehicles, infrastructure for charging is important. Currently, mobility chargers are imported to India.
So, ARAI is focused on developing these indigenous chargers because these chargers are cost-effective and help boost the local economy.
ARAI helps Perform the following functions for Electric Vehicles:
- Battery Performance and Safety Testing
- Electric Motor Characterization
- Vehicle Performance and Homologation as per CMVR on Chassis Dynamometer and Test Tracks
- Charger Testing and Certification
- Electric Vehicle Development
- Rechargeable Energy Storage System (REESS) Evaluation using CAE
- Four Poster durability of Electric Vehicle in Climatic Chamber for structural adequacy, etc.
ARAI Standards for Electric Vehicles & its Chargers
ARAI has set some Standards for Electric Vehicles & Chargers which are as follows.
- AIS-038 – Electric Power Train Vehicles-Construction and Functional Safety Requirements.
It includes requirements of a vehicle with regards to specific requirements for the electric power train and requirements of a vehicle Rechargeable Electrical Energy Storage System concerning its safety.
- AIS-039 – Electric Power Train Vehicles–Measurement of Electrical Energy Consumption.
It helps in measuring the consumption of electric energy by electric vehicles.
- AIS-040 – Electric Power Train Vehicles – Method of Measuring the Range.
It is a range test for the electric vehicles
- AIS-041 – Electric Power Train Vehicles – Measurement of Net Power and The Maximum 30 Minute Power.
It helps in the measurement of the net power of the electric vehicle and explains the working and benefits of the maximum 30-minute power.
- AIS-049 – Electric Power Train Vehicles – CMVR Type Approval for Electric Power Train Vehicles.
It is a test of grade-ability for electric vehicles.
ARAI is committed to developing sustainable mobility solutions for a safer, sustainable and cleaner environment and transportation sector.
It is committed to leveraging all its resources to protect the interest of its customers, stakeholders, employees, and overall operations. They have trained people, technology, and tools to fulfill their commitments.
Thus, is well equipped to take up future challenges. They are an important element of the growth of the automotive sector in India.
Its collective, collaborative, and cooperative efforts help innovate newer solutions for EV ecosystem development.
Electric Vehicle Standards and Regulations in India?
Globally, the automotive industry is passing through a paradigm shift. The past century has been the era of the internal combustion engine (ICE) primarily on account of the ease of use, availability, and low cost of fossil fuels.
The shift to electric mobility has become necessary on account of the fast depletion of fossil fuels, rapid increase in energy costs, impact of transportation on the environment, and concerns over climatic change.
Why are Standards/Regulations Required for EVs?
EVs are gaining popularity in the marketplace. Hence, OEMs are obliged to ensure the safety of the public. With the increase in the use of Electric scooters and electric cars, it will need ease of use for consumers.
Robust testing and certification can help to meet both the above-mentioned objectives. Some of the other reasons for standardization are:
- Social demand,
- Minimum safety requirements,
- Performance requirement,
- Quality during the product life cycle,
- Technological advancement,
- Access to global markets
Standardization is governed by various government agencies. CMVR is a technical standard committee, AISC is the Automotive Indian Standard Committee, Standing Committee on Emission Legislation-SCOE, Bureau of Indian Standards-BIS.
Testing of various components in an electric vehicle must be done for its role in the application, reliability, durability, safety, efficiency, etc.
CMVR has approval testing in the Verification, safety, and performance categories.
Type of Approval Testing Under CMVR
Category and Type of Approval Required For EVs in India?
No CMVR certification is required for vehicles falling specification with 250W (30 minutes power of motor) of a maximum speed of 25 kmph. However, such vehicles need to comply with the following things:
- White reflectors on the front side
- Red reflectors on the rear side
- A vehicle without a battery must weigh below 60kg.
Government Regulation Framework for Electric Vehicles
Some of the global regulations are rolled out by SAE, AIS by CMVR, and UN ECE Regulations R100 R101 R85 for electric vehicles.
- AIS Standards are for electric vehicles in India, Some of the regulations are AIS038, 039, 040, 041, 048, and 049.
- AIS038: Requirement for construction and functional safety
- AIS039: Measurement of electrical energy consumption (Wh/km).
- AIS040: Method of measuring the range.
- AIS041: Measurement of net power and maximum 30 min power.
- AIS049: CMVR type approval for EV.
- AIS048: Safety requirements for traction batteries.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle category vehicles have to comply with AIS102 Part1 and Part2. Retro-fitment is another business model in the electric vehicle domain.
The old vehicles with internal combustion engines which are being attached with the electric kit have to follow AIS123 Part1, Part2, and Part3.
- AIS138 Part1, Part2 / IS 17017 standard applies for charging infrastructure.
- AIS131 type-approval procedure for electric and hybrid electric vehicles introduced in the market for pilot/demonstration projects intended for a government scheme.
For L Category Vehicles, AIS156 (in line with UN R136) covers the following points:
- Vibration test
- Thermal shock and cycling test
- Mechanical drop test for removable REESS
- Mechanical shock
- Fire resistance
- External shock circuit protection
- Overcharge protection
- Over-discharge protection
- Over-temperature protection
Read More- RTO Rules for Electric Scooter & Bikes
FAQs- FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
ARAI certifications are authorized for the testing and certification of vehicles and engines used for both automotive and non-automotive applications. They play a vital role in ensuring safer, less polluting, more efficient, and more reliable vehicles. They carry out sponsored R&D projects with the Government of India.
Homologation of an Electric vehicle is the process of certifying that a particular vehicle is roadworthy and matches certain specified criteria laid out by the government for all E-vehicles made or imported into that country.
Electric vehicles with a maximum power of fewer than 250 watts and a speed of less than 25 kmph are exempted from the type approval requirements. You should check if your vehicle falls under this limit. If yes, then you should approach ARAI for necessary relaxation. If the vehicle is above these limits, it will be treated as a motor vehicle and hence will need to be type-approved.
The ARAI test cost will depend on the vehicle category and its technical specifications. One has to apply for approval by giving detailed vehicle specifications in the required format. Details about the formats are available on the ARAI website. On receipt of the application, ARAI calculates the test fee.
Compliance testing and certification require 2-3 months for each new vehicle model. This type of approval is done according to the vehicle model. The test is defined in CMVR. Details regarding type approval applications are available on the ARAI website.