Solid state batteries as the name suggest use a solid electrolyte instead of a liquid electrolyte that is used in traditional Lithium-ion batteries.
- It follows the same mechanism as traditional Lithium-ion batteries, which is the movement of lithium ions from the cathode to anode during charging and anode to cathode during discharging.
- The movement of lithium ions happens in a similar way, which is through the electrolyte medium.
- Solid state batteries use solid electrolyte instead of liquid electrolyte that is used in traditional Lithium-ion batteries.
- A traditional Lithium-ion battery has a liquid electrolyte along with a separator, which separates the positive and negative electrodes to prevent the possibility of a short circuit. Whereas, a solid-state battery contains a solid electrolyte, which separates the positive and negative electrodes, thereby making the use of a separator unnecessary.
Advantages compared to a traditional Lithium-ion battery (NMC)
- Faster charging (Higher C rate of charge)
- Safer because of the absence of liquid electrolyte, which tends to catch fire.
- Higher power density (Higher C rate of discharge)
- Higher overvoltage value
- Higher nominal voltage
- Overcharging does not lead to a fire.
- Higher cycle life
- Higher durability
- Higher stability
- Higher temperature operations.
- Higher degradation of battery allowed before reaching its end-of-life.
- The higher gravimetric energy density (Wh/Kg).
- A short circuit does not lead to a fire.
- Nail penetration does not lead to a fire.
- No structural limitation, enabling it to be used in various shapes that can be smaller and thinner.
Read More: Solid-State Battery for EVs
Future of Solid State Batteries
A few companies have set up pilot-scale facilities to manufacture solid-state batteries. It has a very good potential to take a good market share in the battery market, especially in the EV segment. Its adoption will ensure that battery fires are a thing of the past.
About Author: Rahul Bollini is an emerging technology R&D specialist. He works with various new technologies. He is one of the very few people in India to have access to Solid State Batteries. He is currently running trials with a company for electric vehicles application.