An official authority’s permission is known as homologation. This may be a court of law, a government department, or an academic or professional group, all of which would use a set of criteria or standards to decide whether or not such approval should be granted.
The word can be considered a rough synonym for accreditation, and it can also be used to refer to academic degrees in French and Spanish. Another possible synonym is certification, while homologate is the infinitive verb form.
In today’s economy, for example, products often must be homogenized by a government body to ensure that they meet safety and environmental criteria.
A judicial authority may also homologate a court action before it can advance, and the term has a specific legal meaning in several nations’ judicial rules. In English-speaking areas, the similar process of testing and certification for adherence to technical standards is known as type approval.
So, let’s apply these terms to our Auto Industry-
What is Homologation and Why it is Important for Electric Vehicles?
Homologation is the type of approval procedure in motorsports that requires a vehicle, a racing track, or a standardized item to be certified to race in a specific league or series. In simple words, the process of testing and certification for adherence to technical standards is known as type approval. The series’ sanctioning organization sets the norms and rules that must be followed.
Homologation is the procedure by which the official authority approves the vehicle once it passes the organization’s tight requirements.
Why it is important for EVs?
Essentially, homologation tests ensure that the electirc vehicle matches the requirements of the Indian market in terms of emissions and safety, and roadworthiness as per the Central Motor Vehicle Regulations.
The homologation process for electric vehicles includes the following points: Component approval (eg lamps, mirrors, tires), component fittings for the vehicle (eg electric/electronic sub-assemblies, car audio systems), system approval (eg braking mechanisms), and whole vehicle type approval (WVTA)/ Vehicle certification test.
For each phase, the concerned authority will issue a system approval as per the applicable CMVR (Central Motor Vehicle Rules). Once all approvals are collected, the testing organization issues the report for approval as the basis for the homologation certificate.
Cost of Vehicle (including EV) Homologation in India?
The cost of homologation varies depending on the type of vehicle. It is generally around Rs. 3 to 5 lakh for two-wheelers and around Rs 10 to 15 lakh for three- and four-wheelers, depending on the number of tests required to ensure roadworthiness.
And the homologation process usually takes about three months, which is the international average.
Vehicle Homologation Process?
Before any vehicle including electric vehicles can be sold or marketed, it must undergo homologation. The procedure for electric vehicle homologation is as follows:
- All vehicle components, such as lamps, mirrors, tires, and the battery, must be examined and validated.
- After the electric car’s components have been checked, the components’ fit in the vehicle will be evaluated. This comprises components such as the automotive audio system, electronic sub-assemblies, and so on.
- Following the testing and approval of component fitment in the vehicle, the vehicle’s systems are the next step. Braking, exhaust emission, engine cooling, fuel supply, suspension, and steering systems must all be tested for proper operation. Approval is granted if they meet the requirements of the tests completed.
- The Whole Vehicle Type Approval (WVTA) test is the final test to be performed before any vehicle is approved to be sold and marketed. ‘Vehicle Certification Test’ is another name for it.
- The relevant authority verifies every component of the vehicle that is put to the test. The manufacturer will select the authority that will issue approval to the specific component following the verification process. According to each appropriate CMVR (Central Motor Vehicle Rule), 1989, the manufacturer will issue a system approval. The relevant authority’s approval is conditional on the specific component passing the test developed by the officially recognized organization. All of the necessary approvals must be gathered before deciding whether or not to grant the vehicle approval. The approval given by the appropriate authorities will be valid in all of the countries listed in the approval report.
Vehicle Homologation Requirements?
Homologation not only requires compliance with a racing series’s technical guidelines (for example, engine displacement, chassis construction, suspension design, and so on), but it also frequently includes minimum levels of sales of that model to the public, to ensure that no vehicles in the competition have been designed and produced solely for the competition.
Because these cars are primarily designed for racing, their use on public roads is usually a secondary design priority, as long as government restrictions are followed.
These features are frequently reversible, allowing production vehicles to be converted to racing trim. The exhaust system, for example, is frequently modified in the production vehicle to comply with regulatory requirements in the regions where the vehicle is sold. Because most production-based racing series allow some level of modification, such as the removal of exhaust systems that reduce emissions at the expense of engine performance, vehicles that were built and sold primarily to meet the homologation guidelines of a particular series are frequently designed to allow for easy modification of such components.
Homologation Testing Organization in India
In India, the following professional authorities perform automotive homologation:
- The Ministry of Environment and Forests is one of the professional authorities in India that performs car homologation.
- The Transport Divisional Council of the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).
- The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas.
- The Ministry of Transportation, Roads, and Highways. It is further separated into two organizations that perform distinct types of inspections, namely Emission and Safety. The Standing Committee on Implementation of Implementation Legislation performs the emission checks. The Technical Standing Committee is in charge of the safety checks. ACMA, BIS, SIAM, TMA, MoHI & PE, etc. These are all testing companies.
NATRIP Architecture of Testing Agencies
For any vehicle, including electric vehicles, components must be certified by the country’s government agencies before they can be sold or marketed.
The process for approving components of a vehicle varies from country to country. Different countries have different verification criteria. It is important to check components before they are marketed jointly in any vehicle. These critical exams enhance vehicle safety, environmental protection, and component and manufacturing process quality.